Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals. The primary use of metallic arsenic is in alloys of lead. Arsenic and its compounds are in use in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, insecticides, paints, dyes, soaps, and semiconductors.
Acid water is water with a potential hydrogen (pH) of less than 7. pH is measured on a scale from 0 to 14. 7 on the pH scale represents neutral where the substance is neither a base or acidic. Zero through 7 indicates acidity; the lower the number, the higher the acidity. Seven through 14 shows basicity; the higher the number, the higher the basicity.
BACTERIA, CYST, VIRUS
A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism. Bacteria, Cyst, and Virus’ are all considered microorganisms. There are a vast number of microorganisms that can thrive in water. Some of these, such as E-coli, can be deadly to humans when ingested. The organism can find their way into water supplies in a numerous amount of ways.
For centuries chlorine has been a common disinfectant for water. Chlorine can rid water of contaminations such as bacteria, viruses’ and cyst. Chlorine may be significant for disinfection, but it can cause some side effects. When used as a disinfectant, chlorine may leave dangerous byproducts in the water. Chlorine is a powerful oxidizing agent, which means that it can cause other substances to lose their electrons.
Manganese is a mineral that naturally occurs in rocks and soil and may also be present due to underground pollution sources. Manganese is seldom found alone in a water supply. Chemically manganese is closely related to iron. It is frequently found in iron-bearing waters but is rarer than iron. Manganese, in low concentrations it produces extremely objectionable stains on everything with which it comes in contact.
TOXINS & CHEMICALS
Toxins are poisonous substances that originate in living organisms, and chemicals are compounds or substances produced by or used in a chemical process. Several different toxins and chemicals can be in water; depending on where it originates—water coming from private sources such as a well may contain a high risk of chemical contamination.
Chloramine is a chemical often used as a disinfectant in water treatment plants. It can kill bacteria and other dangerous pathogens. Chloramine is less effective but is used as an alternative to traditional chlorine because it produces fewer byproducts, and remains active longer, making it more efficient when moving through piping systems to reach a home or business.
Lead is a heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials. Many years ago, Lead was common in the construction of home water pipes and municipal underground water distribution systems. Lead solder appeared to utilize on brass or chrome-plated brass faucets and plumbing fixtures. Corrosion of lead pipes can lead to water.
Iron is a heavy type of metal that is very common, occurs naturally in the blood, and is used to make steel and in many products. Iron typically finds its way in water from the rocks and soil around the water source. As water moves through the rocks and into the well or aquifer, it dissolves the iron naturally found in the environment.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content. It forms when water percolates through deposits of limestone and chalk, made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates. Hard water has no health risk but can cause many difficulties for a home or business. Hard water can lead to mineral build-up inside of the piping.
Fluoride is a chemical that a subject heavily debated. On one side of the spectrum, you have the dental communities that advocate for fluoride, claiming it is beneficial for teeth and prevents tooth decay. On the opposite end, theorist argues that fluoride has little to no benefits and may cause serious health problems. Fluoride is an active ingredient in many pesticides.
Corrosion is the destruction or damage of metal, stone, or other materials slowly by chemical action. Many copper pipes become corroded due to many factors; one of the most prominent is being acid water. High levels of dissolved oxygen can also cause corrosion known as oxygen corrosion. Pipes can also become corroded by not being correctly installed, or improper electrical grounding.
Methane is an invisible, odorless, and combustible gas present in trace concentrations in the atmosphere. Methane occurs naturally, especially in swampy areas where it is called “marsh gas. Methane may get into water supplies by seeping through in a process known as methane migration. Areas, where fracking occurs, have reported having water tainted with methane at a higher rate.
NITRATE & NITRITE
Nitrates and nitrites are compounds that are produced naturally through the breakdown of organic matter. They are very similar in their chemical make-up, where there only difference is the amount of oxygen in each compound. Nitrates and nitrites are added to foods such as cured sandwich meats, bacon, salami, or sausages to give them color and to prolong their shelf life.
Radon is a dangerous natural gas. Spas utilized this method due to some belief it has medical benefits. It's often used to initiate chemical reactions. Radon is considered radioactive. It comes from the natural breakdown of uranium and its based on igneous rock and soil. As the element breaks down into gas forms, it seeps into the air.
Sulfur (sulpher) is an element that people have known for thousands of years. They have also recorded the uses of sulfur in ancient India, Greece, China, and Egypt. There are references of sulfur in The Odyssey and The Bible, where the latter refers to it as brimstone, meaning ‘burn stone’ or ‘stone that burns.’ Rainwater is also a source of sulfur.
Radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles. Radioactivity, or radioactive decay, is a form of energy that’s released and its decompose of an unstable atom. We are lightly exposed to radiation nearly every day of our lives, most commonly from the sun, X-rays, and nuclear energy.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of water caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye. Turbidity can originate from soil erosion, waste discharge, stormwater runoff, eroding stream banks, bottom-feeding fish, and algae growth. Turbidity in water is natural to diagnose.
Sometimes water in a home or business may have a foul taste or smell. It could be a sign of many different problems if the water has an off-putting flavor and aroma, it's likely contaminated with Sulfur or Hydrogen Sulfide. It may cause digestive problems in humans, and lead to more severe plumbing problems.
Tannin is a yellowish or brownish bitter-tasting nonchemical substance presented in some galls, barks, and other plant tissues. Tannins can cause the water to turn into a dark color like tea and have a sharp flavor that people associate with red wine, including unripened fruits. It also functions as a dyeing of textiles and the tanning of leather products.
Have you ever noticed stains around bathroom fixtures, or in your clothes after they just washed? Do you recognize your silverware is becoming discolored? If you have this issue, your water is likely to contaminate with several different things. If the stains are yellow or brown, you may be dealing with tannins or rust. Tannins will cause water to be a tea-like color and may also affect the scent and flavor of it